Planets orbiting red dwarf stars are unique compared to other star systems because such planets are prone to falling into synchronous rotation, so that one side experiences perpetual day and the opposite side resides in permanent night. Such planets could still be habitable, sustaining liquid water and perhaps even life, so such systems continue to be targeted in the search for signs of life on exoplanets.
One starting point to looking for life on such worlds is to infer properties of an exoplanet climate from astronomical data. Eric Wolf, Ravi Kopparapu, and myself examine this problem in a paper titled “Simulated phase-dependent spectra of terrestrial aquaplanets in M dwarf systems” and published in The Astrophysical Journal. Infrared emission and reflected stellar light from a planet changes as it orbits its host star. We should that observations of these orbital changes in thermal energy could provide important information on the circulation state of the planet, the location of major cloud decks, and the abundance of water vapor. As the next generation of space telescope are designed and launched, methods such as these will become important tools for understanding the potential of M-dwarf systems to support life.