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Finding sources of funding to search for life in the universe can be tricky, with only a few individual wealthy investors and limited opportunities for government research support. New fundraising ideas are needed in order to sustain the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) over the coming decades.

In a recent paper titled “Funding the search for extraterrestrial intelligence with a lottery bond,” published in Space Policy, I propose the establishment of a “SETI Lottery Bond” to help defray the costs of operating observing facilities like the Allen Telescope Array. The SETI Lottery Bond would provide a fixed-rate of interest that continues in perpetuity, until the first confirmed discovery of extraterrestrial intelligent life, at which point a subset of shares will be awarded a prize from a lottery pool. Investors can also trade their shares, so that SETI Lottery Bond shares may be passed between generations, teaching the value of intergenerational savings while maintaining hope for the discovery of extraterrestrial life.

Lottery-based savings products can only be offered by financial institutions with the legal authorization to engage in banking and gaming activities. I propose that one or more financial institution could realize a profit through the establishment and management of a SETI Lottery Bond, while simultaneously promoting individual savings habits and assisting the search for extraterrestrial intelligent life.

The outer edge of the habitable zone is traditionally defined as the outermost orbital distance at which a planet could sustain liquid water on its surface. At this distance orbit, Earth-like planets with plate tectonics (or a similar process for recycling volatiles) should build up dense carbon dioxide atmospheres that help offset the reduction in starlight. Carbon dioxide released from volcanoes provides additional greenhouse warming, although rainwater dissolves some of this. The amount of carbonic acid that dissolves in rainwater and reaches the ground depends upon the temperature: the colder it gets, the less carbon dioxide gets rained out of the atmosphere. This feedback is part of the carbonate-silicate cycle, which regulates an Earth-like planet’s carbon dioxide over geologic (million year) time scales.

In a recent paper published in The Astrophysical Journal, titled “Limit cycles can reduce the width of the habitable zone,” my co-authors and I examine the propensity of this carbonate-silicate cycle to cause a planet to oscillate between completely frozen and completely ice-free climate states. We update a simplified climate model to account for the increase in weathering that occurs as a planet builds up a dense carbon dioxide atmosphere. Beginning with a planet in completely ice-covered conditions, we allow volcanic outgassing of carbon dioxide to continue until the planet melts from the enhanced greenhouse effect. However, under certain conditions, the planet will then start to rain out and weather the atmospheric carbon dioxide at such a fast rate that the greenhouse effect decreases and the planet again plummets into global glaciation.

This type of climate cycle between glacial and ice-free states is not likely to occur on Earth today, but such cycles might have been possible on early Earth during the Hadean eon. Extrasolar planets may also be prone to this type of climate cycling, although predicting whether or not this should occur depends upon knowing a planet’s volcanic outgassing rate. Our climate calculations place boundaries on the conditions under which we should expect such climate cycles to occur for Earth-like planets orbiting a range of different stars.

Colonizing Mars

National space agencies and private corporations have declared plans to send humans to the red planet, with longer-term planets of settlement and resource extraction likely to follow. Such actions may conflict with the Outer Space Treaty of 1967, which currently prohibits any sovereign claims in space.

In a recent Space Policy paper written by Sara Bruhns and myself, titled “A pragmatic approach to sovereignty on Mars,” we develop a practical approach toward allowing the settlement of space and use of its resources through a “bounded first possession” model with a required planetary park system. We suggest that exclusive economic claims could be made without establishing sovereignty on Mars, and we propose a model for management and conflict resolution on Mars that build upon lessons from history. We also recommend revisions to the Outer Space Treaty to resolve the current ambiguity of how nations, corporations, and individuals can use the resources of space.

I am pleased to announce that the first volume of the Blue Marble Space Short Story Collection is now available! This volume, titled Tales From Spaceship Earth, includes stories from six different scientists at the Blue Marble Space Institute of Science and is the first in an ongoing series of science-informed fiction.

This collection of stories reflects an intersection of each author’s knowledge of science and vision of the future. These unique perspectives range from the near-term evolution of the space station program, to the beginnings of martian colonies, to the ultimate end of life on Earth–all of which grapple with critical issues of our transformation into a spacefaring society.

This book is available from Amazon as in both paperback and Kindle formats. Proceeds from this collection directly support the research of BMSIS scientists.

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